World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1 or World War One), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents’ technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.

revolutions in many of the nations involved.

The war drew in all the world’s economic great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.

The immediate trigger for war was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo. This set off a diplomatic crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia,[10][11] and international alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked. Within weeks, the major powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.

The Russian government collapsed in March 1917, and a subsequent revolution in November brought the Russians to terms with the Central Powers. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives and began entering the trenches. On 4 November 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to an armistice, and Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war in victory for the Allies.

By the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost substantial territory, while the latter two were dismantled. The maps of Europe and Southwest Asia were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created. During the Paris Peace conference, The Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such an appalling conflict. This aim, however, failed with weakened states, renewed European nationalism and the German feeling of humiliation contributing to the rise of fascism. All of these conditions eventually led to World War II.

World War 1 Statistic

Date : 28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918

Armistice of Compiègne

(4 years, 3 months and 2 weeks)

Peace treaties:

Treaty of Versailles
Signed 28 June 1919

(4 years and 11 months)

Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Signed 10 September 1919

(5 years, 1 month, 1 week and 6 days)

Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
Signed 27 November 1919

(4 years, 1 month, 1 week and 6 days)

Treaty of Trianon
Signed 4 June 1920

(5 years, 10 months and 1 week)

United States–Austria Peace Treaty
Signed 24 August 1921

(3 years, 8 months, 2 weeks and 3 days)

United States–Germany Peace Treaty
Signed 25 August 1921

(4 years, 4 months, 2 weeks and 5 days)

United States–Hungary Peace Treaty
Signed 29 August 1921

(3 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 1 day)

Treaty of Lausanne
Signed 24 July 1923

(8 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)

Location : Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South and North America

Result : Allied victory

End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
Establishment of the League of Nations.
Belligerents :

Allied Powers (Entente):

France
British Empire British Empire
United Kingdom
Australia
Canada
British India
Newfoundland
New Zealand
South Africa
Russia (1914–17)
Italy (1915–18)
United States (1917–18)[a]
Japan
Serbia
Montenegro
Romania (1916–18)
Belgium
Hejaz
Greece (1917–18)
Portugal (1916–18)
Central Powers :

Germany
Baden
Bavaria
Prussia
Saxony
Württemberg
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria (1915–18)
Co-belligerents
Darfur (1914-16)
Dervish State
Jabal Shammar
Commanders and leaders :

Allied leaders :

French Third Republic : Georges Clemenceau
French Third Republic : Raymond Poincaré
French Third Republic : Ferdinand Foch
British Empire : George V
British Empire : H. H. Asquith
British Empire : David Lloyd George
British Empire : Douglas Haig
British Empire : Winston Churchill
Russian Empire : Nicholas II
Russian Empire : Nicholas Nikolaevich
Russian Empire : Aleksei Brusilov
Kingdom of Italy : Victor Emmanuel III
Kingdom of Italy : Vittorio Orlando
Kingdom of Italy : Luigi Cadorna
United States : Woodrow Wilson
United States : John J. Pershing
Kingdom of Romania : Ferdinand I
Kingdom of Romania : Constantin Prezan
Empire of Japan : Taishō
Kingdom of Serbia : Peter I
Kingdom of Serbia : Radomir Putnik
Central Powers leaders :

German Empire : Wilhelm II
German Empire : Paul von Hindenburg
German Empire : Erich Ludendorff
German Empire : Erich von Falkenhayn
German Empire : Helmuth von Moltke
Austria-Hungary : Franz Joseph I
Austria-Hungary : Karl I
Austria-Hungary : Conrad von Hötzendorf
Austria-Hungary : Arz von Straußenburg
Ottoman Empire : Mehmed V
Ottoman Empire : Enver Pasha
Ottoman Empire : Talaat Pasha
Ottoman Empire : Djemal Pasha
Kingdom of Bulgaria : Ferdinand I
Kingdom of Bulgaria : Nikola Zhekov
Strength :

Allied :

Russian Empire : 12,000,000
British Empire : 8,841,541
French Third Republic : 8,660,000
Kingdom of Italy : 5,615,140
United States : 4,743,826
Kingdom of Romania : 1,234,000
Empire of Japan : 800,000
Kingdom of Serbia : 707,343
Belgium : 380,000
Kingdom of Greece : 250,000
Total: 42,959,850

Central Power :

German Empire : 13,250,000
Austria-Hungary : 7,800,000
Ottoman Empire : 2,998,321
Kingdom of Bulgaria : 1,200,000
Total: 25,248,321

Casualties and losses :

Allied :

Military dead: 5,525,000

Military wounded: 12,831,500

Military missing: 4,121,000

Total: 22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA

Central Power :

Military dead: 4,386,000

Military wounded: 8,388,000

Military missing: 3,629,000

Total: 16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA

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